The Labor Code of the Philippines stands as the law governing employment practices and labor relations in the Philippines. It was enacted on Labor day of 1974 by President Ferdinand Marcos, in the exercise of his then extant legislative powers. It prescribes the rules for hiring and termination of private employees; the conditions of work including maximum work hours and overtime; employee benefits such as holiday pay, thirteenth month pay and retirement pay; and the guidelines in the organization and membership in labor unions as well as in collective bargaining.
The Labor Code contains several provisions which are beneficial to labor. It prohibits termination from employment of Private employees except for just or authorized causes as prescribed in Article 282 to 284 of the Code. The right to trade union is expressly recognized, as is the right of a union to insist on a closed shop.
Strikes are also authorized for as long as they comply with the strict requirements under the Code, and workers who organize or participate in illegal strikes may be subject to dismissal. Moreover, Philippine jurisprudence has long applied a rule that any doubts in the interpretation of law, especially the Labor Code, will be resolved in favor of labor and against management.
- Preliminary Title
- Book I – Pre-Employment
- Book II – Human Resources Development Program
- Book III – Conditions of Employment
- Book IV – Health, Safety and Social Welfare
- Book V – Labor Relations
- Book VI – Post Employment
- Book VII – Transitory Final Provisions